UK government expectations for the Glasgow Climate Summit - being addressed at July Ministerial
This is the annex to a letter to member states by The Rt Hon Alok Sharma MP COP President on Glasgow expectations
Annex - Expectations for COP26 & July Ministerial Discussion Questions
The Presidency has heard from Parties and groups on their expectations for a Glasgow outcome that addresses the various ambition gaps - within and outside the negotiated outcome - finalises the Paris Rulebook, and leaves no issues behind. This note sets out the common themes that have been raised; to assist discussions at the July Ministerial and to help guide us towards a successful outcome in Glasgow that keeps 1.5°C within reach.
Protecting people and nature from the impacts of climate change
Enhancing adaptation action and support must be at the heart of the Glasgow package. In addition to delivering on the full set of adaptation-related mandates for COP26, we have heard the need to clearly reflect the priority that must be placed on adaptation. Parties have raised the need to discuss the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA), and for Glasgow to initiate a process or programme of work to define a framework for assessing progress, which could be used to inform the Global Stocktake. Additionally, Parties have told us that concrete steps are required before, during and after COP26 to enhance the quantity, accessibility, predictability and effectiveness of financial and technical support for adaptation. The importance of work to develop the Santiago Network for Loss & Damage has been highlighted, as well as broader efforts to enhance action and support to avert, minimise and address loss and damage through COP26.
July Ministerial discussion questions - scaling up adaptation
● What outcomes are needed on the GGA at COP26? How can we ensure an effective assessment of collective progress towards the GGA ahead of the Global Stocktake?
● What can be done to improve the quantity, quality, and predictability of finance for adaptation, including improving the accessibility of finance for locally-led action?
July Ministerial discussion questions - loss and damage
● What does the Santiago Network need to deliver for countries most at risk of loss and damage? How can the process led by the presidencies ensure that this can be achieved?
● Beyond the Santiago Network, how can assistance and support from within and outside the UNFCCC enable enhanced action to avert, minimise and address loss and damage?
Cutting emissions to keep 1.5°C within reach
The science is clear that we must significantly increase our collective efforts to keep 1.5°C within reach. The Paris Agreement provides a clear ratchet mechanism to ensure that we have an ongoing, regular process to increase ambition. In this context, many Parties have expressed expectations that all Parties will submit highest possible ambition NDCs to 2030 ahead of COP26, noting the 30 July deadline for inclusion in the updated NDC Synthesis Report. A number of Parties have also noted that the next decade is critical for keeping 1.5 in reach, expressed their grave concern over the scale of the current mitigation gap according to the best available science, and requested that this issue be addressed in Glasgow. Related to this, a number of Parties have highlighted the importance of the Global Stocktake. Many have flagged COP26 as an opportunity to welcome the growing number of Parties that have made commitments to net zero or carbon/climate neutrality and encourage all Parties to make such commitments and reflect them in Long-Term Strategies (LTS). We have also heard the importance of accelerated action in specific sectors, nature, developed countries taking the lead, ensuring a just transition, working together with non-state actors, and reflecting on lessons learnt.
July Ministerial discussion questions - cutting emissions to keep 1.5°C within reach
● What do Parties consider to be the critical steps that we must collectively take to deliver on the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement to keep 1.5°C within reach?
● How should these steps be reflected through outcomes at COP26, and which other issues might need to be captured beyond those listed above?
Finance is crucial for ambitious climate action and COP26 marks a critical juncture. Delivering on the $100 billion goal is of the utmost importance. Securing new and enhanced climate finance commitments - including for adaptation - has been a focus of the UK’s COP26 and G7 presidencies. Parties have raised the need for developed countries to build confidence ahead of COP26 that the annual $100bn goal will be met through to 2025. We have heard calls to consider progress towards the goal at COP26, and to address gaps in the quantity, predictability, transparency, accessibility, effectiveness, and composition of climate finance, taking into account the needs and priorities of developing countries. Many have highlighted that the economy-wide transformation required by the Paris Agreement involves all types of finance, and that Parties also need to consider what is needed to achieve the broader consistency of finance flows with a pathway towards the Paris goals. We have heard that Parties need to agree a timeline and process, with milestones, for setting the new collective quantified (post-2025) goal and that these should articulate the questions that need to be addressed in defining the goal.
July Ministerial discussion questions - mobilising finance
● How can confidence be built that the $100bn/yr goal will be delivered through to 2025?
● What key questions do Ministers consider need to be addressed in Parties' deliberations on the new collective quantified (post-2025) goal, and what should the key components of the process to be agreed at COP26 be?
Finalising Article 6 in the Paris Rulebook
All Parties have stressed the importance of resolving the outstanding elements of the Paris Rulebook at COP26. Parties have highlighted the imperative of taking substantive decisions on all elements of Article 6 and common time frames and adopting required transparency tables and formats in a manner which enhances delivery of the Paris Agreement. We have also heard the importance of dedicated capacity building support to enable full and effective participation under Article 6, and to support developing countries to fulfil their obligations under the Enhanced Transparency Framework. At the July Ministerial the discussion will focus on Article 6; in particular on the possible solutions identified by Parties in informal ministerial consultations led by Minister Fu and Minister Rotevatn on 7 and 12 July.
Inclusive climate action