Draft Paper on How to Address the 2020-2025 Targets of the Sustainable Development Goals

Paper 1: Suggestions for how to approach SDG targets that fall between 2020 and 2025
Introduction
By Felix Dodds - comments to felix@felixdodds.net
To many people the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) targets are focused on 2030 as the completion date. For 23 targets that is not the date of completion. For twenty it is 2020 and for the remaining three it is 2025.
The agreement on the SDGs and their targets was a long process starting in 2011 when Colombia put the idea on the table. It also aimed to recognize and honor other processes that were either happening:
·       parallel to the SDG negotiations such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030;
·       or had already happen such as the setting of the Biodiversity targets by the CBD or the SAICM target set at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD).
This brings into question should something be done to updatethe targets for these 23 to bring them in line with the 2030 timeline or not?
One of the important developments that will frame this conversation is that the indicators that have been developed for these targets will give Member States real information on progress towards the targets and baseline data for any discussion on developing new targets. This wasn’t the case when the SDGs were agreed to. 
This paper looks at a number of suggestions which Member States might be interested in considering.
In the production of this paper I consulted the relevant UN Agencies and Programmes and a number of Member States on their thinking on what to do with the targets.
So, what to do?
1.     That no new targets will be added to the SDGs to update those that have fallen.
2.     That no new targets will be added to the SDGs to update those that have fallen but there will be continued reporting on the target and indicators.
3.     That any updated targets that are agreed through whatever process has to be endorsed by the UN General Assembly through tis Committee Structure.
4.     That any updated targets agreed by the relevant UN body substitutes the old target without going through renegotiation in the UNGA. Where there is no UN body that can address that target then it is done through the UN General Assembly.
5.     The SDG Open Working Group is reconvened.
This paper will look at each of the options the pros and cons. The paper will not make a recommendation but hope that the discussion helps Member State and others to think through early enough what is the best path forward.
For the benefit of this paper I am going to group targets into those where it is possible for a UN body to set replacement targets and those that do not have that possibility. The full list of the targets that will fall between 2020-2025 as the appear in the SDGs is in Annex 1 under the relevant Goal
To start with this table will collect what I understand in the present thinking under each of the targets. This I am sure will change as the paper acts as a primer for discussion.



Goal
Target
Process already planned
Suggestion
Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
2.1          By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
Nothing planned


2.2          By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
Nothing planned

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well- being for all at all
3.6          By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
Nothing planned

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

Nothing planned

Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
6.6          By 2020, protect and restore water related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

CBD COP?
Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
8.1.A      By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
Nothing planned


8.7          Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
Nothing -planned


8.b          By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
Nothing planned

Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9.c          Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
Nothing planned


11.a By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
Nothing planned

Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

12.4               By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
SAICM Conference in 2020
SAICM Conference 2020
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

UNFCCC Paris text   53. Oceans Conference is 2020?
UNFCCC have a target
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
14.1       By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land- based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
CDB 8
CBD COP?

14.2       By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
Combined elements from CBD 6,11,15
CBD COP?

14.4       By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
Elements from CBD 2,3,4,6,7,12,19
CBD COP?

14.5       By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
Elements from CBD 5,11
CBD COP?

14.6       By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
Elements from CBD 3,4
CBD COP?
Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
15.1       By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
Elements from CBD 4,5,7,11,14,15
CBD COP?

15.2       By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
Elements from CBT 4,5,7,14,15
CBD COP?

15.3       Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
Elements CBD Target 4,5,15
CBD COP?

15.4       By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
Elements from CBD 11,14,15
CBD COP?

15.5       By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
Elements CBD 5,12
CBD COP?
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
17.18     By 2020, enhance capacity building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts
Nothing  planned


Overall what are the Options that Member States might consider?
Option 1: That no updates targets will be added to the SDGs to replace those that have fallen.
Pros
Cons
The agreement on the SDGs and their targets was one that had balanced the interests of all member states and reopening this could cause that balance to be fractured
Some of the targets will be updates by other forums and so then there will be refection of progress reported to the HLPF in line with the new target. This will be particularly relevant to the CBD and SAICM targets

Option 2: That no updated targets will be added to the SDGs to replace those that have fallen but there will be continued reporting on the target and indicators.
Pros
Cons
The agreement on the SDGs and their targets was one that had balanced the interests of all member states and reopening this could cause that balance to be fractured. It also allows reporting on the targets even if other forums have changed them
These updated targets will not have been absorbed into the SDG targets and so it creates two classes of targets. In particular this is true for the CBD and SAICM targets. It may impact on the level of commitment to the new targets if they are not absorbed into the SDGs

Option 3: That any updated target that are agreed through whatever process has to be endorsed by the UN General Assembly through its Committee Structure.
Pros
Cons
This option recognizes that the UNGA had agreed the SDGs and their targets so is the only ‘official body’ that can update them.
This could see the whole agreement reopen unless member states agree to recognize the agreements made in other forums. This still doesn’t address the targets that do not have other forums to set new targets. In these cases, option 2 could continue

Option 4: That any updated target agreed by the relevant UN body substitutes the old target without going through renegotiation in the UNGA. Where there is no UN body that can address that target then it is done through the UN General Assembly.
Pros
Cons
This would address all of the targets that are going to finish in 2020 and 2025
This would open up the SDG targets negotiations to Committee 2 of the UNGA to address those that have no plans to be replaced and this could be a very difficult negotiation

Option 5: The SDG Open Working Group is reconvened.
Pros
Cons
As the UNGA process to set the SDGs and their targets was the SDG OWG then perhaps this is the body that should be reconvened. It would still have to report to the UNGA for overall approval but would be a smaller group negotiating. It would also like the original OWG be a group that wasn’t the usual negotiating groups of the UNGA
Nearly all the original negotiators have moved on as has one of the co-chairs. Whatever positive relationships that were built and achieved the SDGs and their targets would need to be rebuilt.  This might not be possible or desirable.

Some thoughts for consideration
If Member States are considering options 3 or 4 then I have some suggestions how that might be undertaken. In all cases these would be by an intergovernmental process.
Goal 2: Updating could be done by FAO Conference 2019 or 2021
Goal 3: Updating could be done by WHO World Health Assembly
Goal 4: Updating could be done by UNESCO Governing Conference 2019 or 2021
Goal 6: Updating this could be undertaken by the CBD COP.
Goal 8: Updating targets could be addressed through the ILO Executive Body
Goal 9: This is on communication and internet the process under the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) is generally on a ten-year cycle so would not be meeting again until 2025 or 2026. This target could be addressed by the Inter Agency Expert Group on the SDGs and agreed through the Statistical Commission. The present target is for 2020.
Goal 11: This target is a Sendai target the next World Conference on Disaster Relief is probably not happening until 2025. The present targets is in 2020
Goal 12: The easiest target that can be updated is the SAICEM target as there is a process that is already underway to address that in 2020. The original target is one from WSSD in 2002 and which was absorbed into the SDGs.
Goal 13: UNFCCC already has a more update target for 2025 and will in xxxx update that target.
Goals 14 and 15: For the CBD related targets it isn’t as easy as each of the targets in Goals 14 and 15 except for target 14.1 are amalgams of different CBD targets. One approach that the CBD COP could take is to start with the SDG targets and to update them within the CBD COP . This ensures that irrespectively of the options above the CBD COP as a sovereign body which is made up of biodiversity experts would have set updated targets.
Goal 17: This could be addressed by the Inter Agency Expert Group on the SDGs and agreed through the Statistical Commission which could come forward with an updated target.
Concluding remarks
There are no perfect ways to address the reality that the SDG targets are not all 2030 targets. All the 5 options have merits.   My main worry if the targets are not updated within the SDGs is that it will create two levels of targets that will by their nature focus resources and implementation more to those in the SDGs than those not.
This paper is meant to be food for thought please do send any comments to me so it might   improve.


Annex 1
Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture
2.1     By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.
2.2     By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons
Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well- being for all at all
3.6          By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
4.a            By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in  higher education, including  vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries.
6.6          By 2020, protect and restore water related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
Goal 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
8.1.A       By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training
8.7          Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
8.b          By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
9.c          Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
11.a By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015J2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels
Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
12.4               By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts
13 a. Implement the commitment undertaken by developed country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development
14.1       By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land- based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution
14.2               By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans
14.4               By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement scienceJbased management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics
14.5               By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information
14.6       By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation
Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

15.1        By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
15.2        By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
15.3        Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
15.4        By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
15.5        By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development
17.18     By 2020, enhance capacity building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts




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