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Proposed Revision of some SDG Targets by the Co-chairs

GOAL 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

Proposed Revision
1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, including through assistance to those affected by complex humanitarian  emergencies, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

Explanatory rationale:  A revision to this target is proposed to bring focus to the needs of people affected by complex humanitarian emergencies.

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age

Proposed Revision
3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births

Explanatory rationale for the proposed change
SPECIFICITY: "Ending preventable deaths" means achieving a very significant reduction in mortality rates. Numerical targets are proposed here to specify what "ending preventable deaths" by 

3.6 2030 would mean for the two age groups (newborns and children under five). The numerical targets proposed are contained in the WHO's "A Promise Renewed Initiative" and in UNICEF's "Every Newborn Action Plan". The revised approach now proposed involves all countries aiming to reduce mortality in these age groups at least to the levels specified in these two documents respectively. The new formulation leaves scope for countries  already at or below that  level to reduce mortality even  further.

Proposed Revision
3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents By 2030, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents and, in the interim, by 2020, stabilize and then reduce global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents

CONSISTENCY WITH INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
In 2010 the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 64/255, which declared a Decade of Action for Road Safety {2011-2020). OP2 of the resolution articulates the goal of the Decade as "stabilizing and then reducing the forecasted  level of  road  traffic fatalities  around  the world" by 2020. The proposed revision of the target incorporates this goal. In real terms the Decade seeks to reduce road deaths by 2020 by 25% of the 2010 level. So the OWG target of a 50% reduction goes well beyond the Decade of Action objective. Extending the timeframe to 2030 is proposed to address this anomaly. A reduction of 50% by 2030, while ambitious, is achievable and supported by recent data.

3.b Support the research and development of vaccines and medicines for the communicable and non-communicable diseases that primarily affect developing countries, provide access to affordable essential medicines and vaccines, in accordance with the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, which affirms the right of developing countries to use to the full the provisions in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights regarding flexibilities to protect public health, and, in particular, provide access to medicines for all

3.b None.

CONSISTENCY WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
It had been proposed to revise this target as the 2001 Doha Declaration does not limit the use of available TRIPS Agreement flexibilities to essential medicines (a defined term under national laws). Applying this rationale more fully to OWG target 3.b, the language would need to be further amended to remove references to vaccines, developing countries, and the provision of access to medicines for all. Making such substantive revisions to the OWG target however risks undermining the balance agreed during the OWG process and it is therefore proposed to revert to the original text.

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all

4.4 By 2030, increase by [x] per cent the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs  and entrepreneurship

Proposed Revision
By 2030, ensure that all youth and adults have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent work and entrepreneurship
Explanatory rationale for the proposed change SPECIFICITY (Xs): To ensure the highest possible level of ambition, it is proposed to replace "increase by [x] per cent" with the provision "ensure that all youth and adults...". This formulation is more ambitious than target 4 of the Muscat Agreement.

4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and at least [x] per cent of adults, both men and women, achieve literacy and numeracy

Proposed Revision
4.6 By 2030, ensure that all youth and adults, both men and women, reach a proficiency level in literacy and numeracy sufficient to fully participate  in society

SPECIFICITY (Xs):
To ensure the highest possible level of ambition, it is proposed to replace "ensure that all youth and at least [x] per cent of adults" with the provision "ensure that all youth and adults...". It should be noted that this revised target would be more ambitious than the existing EFA Goal 4 which aims at a 50% increase by 2015, or the Muscat Agreement, which refers to "all youth and at least x% of adults". Furthermore it is proposed to replace "achieve literacy and numeracy" with "reach a proficiency level in literacy and numeracy sufficient to fully  participate  in society"  to  provide some definition as to what constitutes literacy and numeracy in a national  context.

4.b By 2020, expand by [x] per cent globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries

Proposed Revision
4.b By 2030, substantially increase support for scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries

DATE/SPECIFICITY (Xs):
According to UNESCO, there is no baseline data on numbers of scholarships. In the absence of such figures, UNESCO suggests that reference should instead be made to the volume of financial flows supporting scholarships for education in groups of beneficiary countries. It is proposed accordingly that the target should read: "By 2030 substantially increase support for scholarships ..."

4.c By 2030, increase by [x] per cent the supply of qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States
Proposed Revision

4.c By 2030, all learners are taught by qualified teachers, including through international cooperation for teacher training in developing countries, especially least developed countries and small island developing States

MEASURABILITY (Xs):
To ensure the highest level of ambition, it is proposed to replace "increase by [x] per cent" by a provision for "all learners" to be taught by qualified teachers. An additional consideration  is that the insertion of a percentage target would not take account of fluctuating teacher  needs and differing demographic trends  across countries.

GOAL 6 Ensure availability and sustainable management  of water and sanitation for  all

6.3 By 2030, improve water  quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and increasing recycling and safe reuse by [x] per cent globally

Proposed Revision
6.3 By 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and at least doubling recycling and safe reuse globally

Explanatory rationale for the proposed change
SPECIFICITY (Xs):
It is proposed to set an ambitious level here - "at least doubling" - because current global levels for the recycling and reuse of waste water are low (estimated to be in the range of 4-12%). Doubling was recommended by a report by the International Council for Science
6.6 By 2020, protect and restore water­ related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
Proposed Revision
6.6 By 2030, water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes have been fully protected and restored
CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
This target has been further revised to refer to ecosystems being "fully protected and restored" by 2030. This increase in the level of ambition makes the target stronger than Aichi Target 14 (which by 2020 calls for "ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water'' to be restored and safeguarded) and justifies the extended timeframe to 2030.

GOAL 8 Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, eradicate forced labour and, by 2025, end child labour in all its forms, including the recruitment and use of child soldiers

Proposed Revision
8.7 Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms
Explanatory rationale for the proposed change CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
As per article 3(a) of the ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182), recruitment and use of child soldiers are considered as worst forms of child labour and should therefore be listed under these forms. The proposed revision clarifies that the action on eradication of forced labour refers to all ages, not only to children.

GOAL 9 Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people by [x] per cent and public and private research and development  spending

Proposed Revision
9.5 Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries,including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers and public and private research and development spending
MEASURABILITY (Xs): Global data on R&D workers is very incomplete. The wide variation  in numbers from one country to another would   make it very difficult to set a global rate of increase which would be attainable by, and relevant to, all countries. It is proposed therefore to refer to "substantially  increasing" the number and on this basis to  delete  the  reference  to  "per  1million people".

GOAL 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient  and   sustainable

11.5        By 2030, significantly  reduce the  number  of deaths, and the number of people affected and decrease  by number  of affected  people and [x] per cent the economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including  water-related disasters, with a              focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations.

Proposed Revision
By 2030, substantially reduce the  number  of deaths, the number  of affected  people and the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water- related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including through humanitarian  assistance

SPECIFICITY  (Xs)/CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
This is aligned with the recently agreed Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030), with an added reference to humanitarian assistance in recognition of its importance to disaster response.

11.b   By 2020, increase by [x] per cent the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement, in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

Proposed Revision
11.B By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction  2015-2030,  holistic disaster risk management at all levels

SPECIFICITY (Xs): ·
This is aligned with the recently agreed Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). The outdated reference to the "forthcoming Hyogo Framework" has been deleted.

GOAL 12  Ensure sustainable consumption  and production  patterns

12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

Proposed Revision
By 2020, achieve the environmentally  sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks and agreements, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

Explanatory rationale for the proposed change CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS: It is proposed to add the words "agreements" in order to encompass commitments made both under Voluntary frameworks and under legally binding agreements.

GOAL 14  Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable    development

14.c Ensure the full implementation of international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea for States parties thereto, including, where applicable, existing regional and international regimes for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by their  parties

Proposed Revision
14.C Ensure the full implementation of international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, including, where applicable, existing regional and international regimes for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their  resources  by their parties

Explanatory rationale for the proposed change CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
The language in this target has been revised to align with existing international agreements  including Rio+20 (Para 158)  and the SAMOA Pathway (Para 55). In addition the revised formulation is aligned with annual GA omnibus resolutions on oceans and the law ofthe sea (e.g. A/RES/69/245, pp7). These existing agreements and resolutions recognise or reaffirm that "international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their  resources".

GOAL 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

15.1      By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use  of terrestrial  and  inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

Proposed Revision
15.1 Ensure the conservation restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services by 2020, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements, and take further action as needed by 2030

Explanatory rationale for the proposed change CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
This formulation aligns the language of the target to the Aichi Targets as well as other commitments - maintaining the Aichi timeline of 2020 for specific actions, but calling for further action as needed by 2030.

15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable sustainable management of all types of forests,           halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and increase afforestation and reforestation by x] per cent globally

Proposed Revision
By 2020, promote the implementation of management of all types of forests, and by 2030, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and afforestation and reforestation globally
SPECIFICITY  {Xs)/CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS: This revised formulation is more closely aligned with Aichi Targets (5, 7 and 15).

15.3 By 2020, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

Proposed Revision
15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

SPECIFICITY:
The 2030 timeframe is consistent with the UNCCD's target of land degradation  neutrality  by 2030 and compatible with the Aichi  Targets

15.5  Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

Proposed Revision
15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation and fragmentation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species, and take further action as needed by 2030

CONSISTENCY  WITH  INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS:
The target has been amended to include a reference to fragmentation of natural habitats, aligning it to Aichi targets. The proposed changes maintain the Aichi timeline of 2020 for specific actions (Aichi Target  12), but call for further action as needed by   2030.

GOAL 17 Strengthen the means of implementation  and revitalize  the global partnership  for sustainable   development

17.2        Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including to provide 0.7 per cent of gross national income in official development assistance to developing countries, of which 0.15 to 0.20 per cent should be provided to least developed countries
Proposed Revision

17.2  Developed countries to implement fully their official development assistance commitments, including to provide 0.7 per cent of gross national income in official development assistance to developing countries, of which at least 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of GNI should be provided to least developed countries, in line with the Istanbul  Programme of Action.


Explanatory rationale for the proposed change CONSISTENCY WITH INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS: It is proposed to add in the last phrase words: "of which at least 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of GNI should be provided to least developed countries". The Istanbul Programme of Action on LDCs [para 116-2(a)(i)] calls for donors which are already providing more than 0.20% of their GNP as ODA to LDCs to continue to do so and maximize their efforts to further increase ODA to LDCs. A reference to the Istanbul Programme of Action has also been included to provide further clarity.

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