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Means of Implementation: An example from the South African Non Paper from 2002 (WSSD) on how to approach energy

1. Proposed Targets and Timeframes
  • increase access to energy, with a view to providing modern affordable energy services to half of the two billion people who currently do not have access to them by 2015; and
  • diversify energy supply by developing cleaner and more efficient fossil fuel technologies, advanced energy technologies and decentralised energy systems achieving a target of 5% of total primary energy use with renewable energy resources by 2010.
2. Proposed Actions

(a) Actions to promote access to energy
  • launch a global energy access fund;
  • redirect energy funds in international financial institutions to support a global energy access fund;
  • redirect export credit agency-supported energy investment toward access and infrastructure projects;
  • ensure that energy sector ODA for the poorest countries will include a focus on access programmes;
  • support targeted capacity building in the energy sector;
  • support local energy centres that promote access to energy, disseminate information, and serve as a focus for capacity building and job creation;
  • integrate energy access into mainstream development co-operation;
  • create a structured, ongoing dialogue on energy access and development through a Global and Regional Energy Forums;
  • support initiatives on regional integration and trade, harmonisation of energy product and technical standards, and regulatory co-operation;
  • develop and implement integrated energy plans at the national, regional and international levels; and
  • develop large-scale infrastructure as a mechanism for more efficient use of regional resources.
(b) Actions to promote cleaner energy
  • commit to shift public funding and international financial institution funding support toward renewable, advanced, cleaner and more efficient energy;
  • develop public-private partnerships for accelerated energy technology development, demonstration, transfer, adaptation, application and commercialization;
  • commit to full cost accounting and removing harmful subsidies, first in OECD countries; redirect these funds to support the Global Energy Access Fund and to promote cleaner energy;
  • scale up contributions and uses of climate change funds (e.g. GEF, special climate change fund, LDC fund) and utilise the Clean Development Mechanism and Global Environmental Facility;
  • provide incentives for companies to set specific targets to improve their energy mix / emissions profile by 2012; and
  • ensure that all export credit agency and export-import bank supported projects meet environmental standards.
3. Resources

Financial resource needs for this programme include:
  • access target: The total cumulative investment cost to provide 1 billion additional people with access to modern affordable energy services is between $180 and $400 billion by 2015. This assumes that half of these people will use off-grid solar home systems and LPG, twenty percent will use grid electricity and LPG, and thirty percent will use only grid electricity. The access programme would provide 700 kWh-equivalent per person, which is the estimated requirement for basic energy needs;
  • cleaner energy target: The incremental investment cost of increasing to 5% the share of primary energy from new renewable energy sources by 2010 could cost up to $470 billion; and
  • potential financing partners will be identified.
4. Institutional Mechanisms

The key partnerships could include the Bretton Woods institutions, regional development banks and institutions and key UN agencies. Regional and country-level support structures would include regional development banks, energy and development specialists in the national UN and World Bank offices. Collaboration with regional economic and political organisations will support the plan of action. Guidance from non-governmental organisations, civil society organisations, and private sector associations/partners will be obtained.

5. Co-ordination

Set up an inter-agency mechanism for co-ordination potentially based in UN, with regional offices. National Governments will play a key role in the co-ordination of the implementation plans.

6. Monitoring

A comprehensive program of monitoring and reporting within an institutional and governance framework will be developed.

7. Stakeholder involvement

One of the key sets of outputs from WSSD will be a set of partnerships, which should contain commitments by various stakeholder groups to implementation on WSSD programmes. These partnerships will include governments, non-governmental organisations, civil society organisations, and the private sector. The commitment of private sector partners is particularly important in the energy sector, because so much of the investment needed to implement the WSSD plans will necessarily come from the private sector. These partnerships will provide a place for different stakeholders to set their own targets, timetables and action plans that will support the achievement of WSSD goals.

8. Implementation plan sustainability

Sustainability is only possible through the close co-operation of all stakeholders at all levels and requires their commitment for long term support. A comprehensive programme to create an environment for sustainability in the energy sector by increasing access and promoting cleaner energy use will be developed with the stakeholders.


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